Preparing a study skin is extremely basic. After skinning the animal, fat is methodically scraped off the underside of the skin. The underside of the skin is rubbed with borax or cedar powder to help it dry faster. Then, the animal is stuffed with cotton and sewn.
In 1851, London hosted the Great Exhibition, which featured around 100,000 objects from more than 15,000 collaborators, including a lot of taxidermy. Indian exhibits included a stuffed elephant (although that animal was actually an African elephant found in a nearby museum). Hancock's taxidermy, which the Official Catalog noted, “will go a long way in raising the art of taxidermy to the level of other arts that have hitherto held higher pretensions. And so it was in the years after the Great Exhibition, taxidermy became a very popular pastime; even a young Theodore Roosevelt took classes.
It got to the point where Victorians anthropomorphized their taxidermy, dressing stuffed animals in clothes and turning them into paintings like those created by Walter Potter. Sometimes they also produced creatures with additional heads or legs. Back at the museum, Akeley tanned the leather in a 12-week process that converted 2.5-inch thick leather into quarter-inch leather. He then made an outline of the elephant on the ground and built its internal frame with steel, wood and the elephant's bones on top of it.
He covered the frame with a wire mesh, and then with clay that he sculpted to recreate the elephant's muscles. After placing the skin in this shape and making sure that the clay accurately replicated every crease and wrinkle, Milgrom says, he cast the shape in plaster to make a lightweight mannequin, which is what he finally stretched the skin on. This is the process he used to create the elephants in the Akeley African Hall of Mammals. Tanning is the process of converting the skin, or leather, of an animal into usable preserved leather, and made taxidermy possible.
Captain James Cook embarked on a series of exploratory expeditions across the South Pacific, where taxidermy was used to preserve animal specimens. According to Milgrom, in these categories, taxidermists try to create an animal without using any of its real parts, make an eagle with turkey feathers, for example, or create a realistic panda with bear skin or even recreate extinct species based on scientific data. From that moment on, taxidermists began to stretch the animal's skin on sculpted molds, or mannequins, typically made of polyurethane foam. Scroll through the images in this digital story to learn about the taxidermy process used to fill a brushtail possum for display.
The animals were literally gutted, their skins were tanned and then stuffed with cotton or straw and sewn back together for display. In taxidermy, a specimen is an exact replica of the animal as it appeared in nature; an example of a trophy is a deer head mounted on the wall. Humans have been preserving animals for thousands of years, just look at mummified cats from ancient Egypt. And nine times out of 10, the madman's den will have two things: a painting with its eyes cut out to keep an eye on unwanted visitors and a beautiful collection of mounted animals whose imminent presence scares intruders.
After photographing it as a reference, he took detailed measurements with a measuring tape and tweezers, compensating for variations that make a dead animal different from a living one, such as deflated lungs, a flabby trunk and flaccid muscles. A study skin is a simplified version of taxidermy: after skinning the animal, it is stuffed and allowed to dry. According to Péquignot, taxidermy began to emerge in the 16th century, when Europeans began assembling the skins of several animals and developed methods and chemicals to preserve them. Humphries, 22, is among a growing number of do-it-yourself taxidermists, many self-taught and working on outrages or other dead animals looking for.